Quantum theory emerged in the first half of the 20th century. Among its pioneers were Niels Bohr, Albert Einstein, Max Planck, Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, and other equally prominent scientists. The development of the Standard Model of elementary particles marked a revolution in our understanding of the universe. It is thanks to quantum theory that we have lasers, MRI, particle accelerators, computers, the internet, and nuclear weapons. But what comes next? Some physicists believe that in the next five years, devices that were once only described in science fiction may become a reality. The point is, any leap in quantum computing greatly enhances the potential of technology capable of performing calculations and simulations beyond the capabilities of today’s supercomputers. In other words, the world is preparing for a quantum future. If quantum technology truly changes computing as we know it, what kind of future awaits us?

**Core Principles of Quantum Theory**

Unlike classical physics, which relies on gravity and Newton’s laws of motion, quantum particles operate according to their own rules. For example, the concept of superposition indicates that a quantum system can exist in multiple states simultaneously.

Although it sounds a bit crazy—reminiscent of Schrödinger’s cat thought experiment—a particle can indeed be in multiple states at once, but only until it is measured. The next principle is quantum entanglement, which occurs when two atoms are connected, even if separated by vast distances. If the properties of one atom change, its entangled partner will also change, instantly. Entanglement exists even when atoms are located on opposite ends of the universe. Superposition and entanglement are foundational principles of quantum theory. These quantum systems have found practical applications, and scientists are finally learning to control and utilize them to their advantage.

**Quantum Computing and Technology**

Quantum theory is essential for understanding the nuclear structure of particles—protons and neutrons—that are strongly attracted to each other by nuclear forces, with their collisions releasing nuclear energy.

Quantum effects also underlie semiconductors and transistors, which led to the electronic revolution and the mass production of classical computers. If we look at modern technologies based on quantum theory, they are open to further refinement. We know that information in traditional computers takes the form of binary digits (bits), which can only have two states: 0 or 1. The superposition of quantum bits (qubits) allows a computer to store both 0 and 1 separately, as well as a combination of both values simultaneously—using superpositions of these two states.

Quantum computing is currently the hottest topic among physicists and investors due to its incredible potential in terms of speed and efficiency compared to classical computers. Yet, there is still much work to be done before quantum computers hit the market.

According to some researchers, quantum computers will allow us to study quantum physics itself in ways previously impossible. They could be used, for instance, to simulate the behavior of drug molecules or to develop new materials for more efficient batteries or energy sources.